The hotshot: Java
Let’s jump in the middle with the favourite of 12 million developers, the GOAT of object-oriented prog languages, Java. It was actually born by accident, back in 1991. Sun Microsystems developers, James Gosling and Patrick Naughton wanted to create a language that can be widely used to support interactive TV services and portable programs. As it turned out, digital cable providers were not ready for such solutions yet, but the tech world was more than ready for Java. It soon became the mother tongue of server-side development.
Why is it so popular?
Because it rarely disappoints:
- It’s platform-independent, easy to write, and can be run anytime, anywhere – on servers, smartphones and more. It runs on more than a billion phones today because it’s the default language for creating apps in Google’s operational system.
- 95% of large and medium-sized companies use Java as their primary programming language, including Amazon, eBay, LinkedIn, Google, Apple, and Facebook, too.
Is your big ambition to develop banking softwares? Then start getting familiar with Java, because most banking projects are Java-based, too.
Because it has a long-time reputation of being the most trusted, most secure language, so the industries focused on these qualities started to use it quickly.
Java is in constant development and most programmers like to use it.
First of all, each new version of the language comes with significant improvements in line with the latest technological advancements and industry requirements.
Secondly, because of the huge context built around it: countless lines of code and a number of apps have already been written in it. So whatever problem you want to solve with it, there is a high chance someone has already created a solution for it – and it can be found on the web.
Microsoft's reply to Java: C#
Whatever can be said about Java is more or less true for C# (C Sharp), too. This prog language was developed by Microsoft around 2000, in fact, as an act of defiance. Previously they have started upgrading Java with algorithms and services matching their own op system back in the ’90s but without any permission. The hack ended up at court and MS decided to create their own framework. That’s how C# came to be.
As a general-purpose programming language, C# can be used anywhere, but it has gained virtual dominance in Windows app and server side programming. And since Microsoft is in the background, it’s at least as popular among companies as its buddy, Java.
C# is a big player in multi-platform mobile app development, too: apps running both on Android and iOS can be developed in C# with the help of Microsoft’s Xamarin system. This is a huge advantage for mobile app developers, who don’t have to create the same up twice for the different platforms.
Just like CSS and HTML, JS is also an indispensable web language: it runs on 95% of the world’s websites. While HTML plays a crucial role in the build-up of websites, CSS makes them look nice, dynamic, and interactive.
Today, Typescript is among the top three most liked programming languages worldwide. It became not just the official language of Google’s Angular and React, but also the framework for Facebook.
Big friend of Big Data: Python
There was a time when more people searched for Python on Google than for Kim Kardashian – but this is not the biggest achievement of the language, of course.
Python was created by Guido van Rossum, a Dutch programmer who started Python as a pet project on the Christmas of 1989. By the way, the language’s name doesn’t originate from the feared snake, but from the British comedy show Monthy Python. Due to this not-so-serious name, people in tech often just smiled when Python was mentioned, however, according to Stack Overflow, Python still became the fastest-growing programming language – according to fresh insights, around 40% of professional programmers use this language.
If we’d have to mention a single thing why Python became this popular, we’d say it’s because of data science. If we’d get to mention a second thing, it would be machine learning. In these two scientific fields, Python is basically the single top player – it’s a very comfortable and trusted language, which can be used to create complex algorithms.
The conquest of Python began with Big Data, and if we look at the forecasts, the success story won’t end soon. Microsoft, Google, Tesla and Facebook all use Python for their data analysation, machine learning and neural network-related projects.
It's all about queries: SQL
Since we’ve already mentioned data, let’s finish our list with another popular data-analyst language, SQL (Structured Query Language).
Though it’s actually not a real programming language, just a structured query language, we still have to talk about SQL. “It’s the most popular query language today. We use it for data entry, data query and modifications in the database.” – says Matyas Szabo Forian. This makes half of the world’s programmers consider SQL essential.
What is SQL used for exactly?
Server-side applications have two vital parts: the application itself (written in programming languages like Java or C#), and the other the database (which stores information that’s utilised while the application is in use). The database part is responsible for everything related to data-processing – it stores, collects, systematises, classifies, combines, modifies or deletes hundreds or hundreds of millions of items as needed. The data of webshop users, available items and their properties are, for example, stored in such databases.
Thanks to Edgar Frank Codd at IBM, SQL is with us since the ’70s. But its popularity was not always so high in the past. At the end of the 2000s, its dominance seemed to have crumbled, and NoSQL databases started to emerge. But instead of becoming less relevant because of the new market players, they found their rightful places, and most of the databases today still run SQL. When there’s a more specified task though – a special or massive amount of unstructured data for example – NoSQL databases have a bigger role. But just like the languages mentioned above, SQL is still going strong and will probably stay relevant for a long time.
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